paraffin

paraffin

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Paraffin bath

PARAFFIN WAX

Paraffin baths, or melted paraffin with a small amount of mineral oil (seven parts paraffin, one part mineral oil), are another common form of superficial thermotherapy. Paraffin, by nature of its low specific heat, allows considerably greater thermal conduction than does water of the same temperature. The mineral oil is used to lower the melting temperature of the paraffin to a point at which it can be used safely with patients. Paraffin baths are typically used to treat the hands or feet and are best for areas that can be dipped into the paraffin. Although some have suggested that paraffin can be applied with a brush to larger areas, these areas are better treated with hot packs. Paraffin bath temperatures are generally in the range of 118°F to 126°F, and the most common application technique involves dipping the hand or foot into the paraffin 7 to 12 times to form a wax "glove" and then covering the glove with a plastic bag and wrapping it with towels to help retain the heat. The duration with this method is generally 15 to 20 minutes. A less used but more effective alternative involves immersing the hand or foot directly in the bath for 5 to 15 minutes. This method is used less frequently because it presents an increased risk for burns.

 

Paraffin wax is a white or colorless soft solid derivable from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms. It is solid at room temperature and begins to melt above approximately 37 °C (99 °F).

Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, and candles, wax paper, polishes, cosmetics, and electrical insulators. It assists in extracting perfumes from flowers, forms a base for medical ointments, and supplies a waterproof coating for wood. In wood and paper matches, it helps to ignite the matchstick by supplying an easily vaporized hydrocarbon fuel.

Fully refined paraffin wax of which oil content is maximum 0.5% and melting point 60/62 C . semi refined paraffin wax of which oil content is from 1% to 10% and melting point 58/60 , 60/62 or 62/64 C , our paraffin wax colors differ from snow white transparent to cream depending its oil content and being heavy or light grade which is related to the melting point of the raw material used . fully refined paraffin wax is used for cosmetic and food products and semi refined paraffin wax usages is candle making, painting, floor covering.

 

 

 

DIESEL EN590

DIESEL EN590

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EN 590 is a standard published by the European Committee for Standardization that describes the physical properties that all automotive diesel fuel must meet if it is to be sold in the European Union and several other European countries. The EN 590 had been introduced along with the European emission standards. EN590 has been referred to as Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel (ULSD) in the European Union.

 

white petroleum jelly

white petroleum jelly

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Take a peek inside any medicine cabinet and you’re sure to find a little jar of petroleum jelly. Usually nestled inside those classic blue containers, Vaseline® Jelly has become a household staple over the years – but how much do you really know about it?

What is Petroleum Jelly?
The history of Vaseline® Jelly starts in 1859, when Robert Chesebrough travelled to Titusville, a small town in Pennsylvania. That’s where oil workers had been using rod wax, an unrefined form of petroleum jelly – then just a simple by-product of the drilling they were working on – to heal wounded or burnt skin.

Curious about petroleum jelly healing benefits, young chemist Robert Chesebrough began to study the substance then known as ‘rod wax’. Through various processes of refinement and purification, he distilled a lighter and transparent gel, which he then patented in 1865 and is the Vaseline® Healing Jelly we know today.

What is Vaseline® Petroleum Jelly?
When people talk about petroleum jelly, they’re usually referring to Vaseline® Healing Jelly – the product originally refined by Chesebrough.

It was originally called ‘Wonder Jelly’, and Chesebrough decided to rebrand the product as Vaseline® Jelly – a combination of the German word for water (wasser) and the Greek word for oil (oleon).

 

white petroleum jelly

Russian JET A-1

Russian JET A-1

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Jet A-1 is a kerosine grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. It is produced to a stringent internationally agreed standard, has a flash point above 38°C (100°F) and a freeze point maximum of -47°C. It is widely available outside the U.S.A. Jet A-1 meets the requirements of British specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1), (formerly DERD 2494 (AVTUR)), ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1) and IATA Guidance Material (Kerosine Type), NATO Code F-35.

Aviation fuel is a specialized type of petroleum-based fuel used to power aircraft. It is generally of a higher quality than fuels used in less critical applications, such as heating or road transport, and often contains additives to reduce the risk of icing or explosion due to high temperature, among other properties

Almost all aviation fuels are derived from crude oil in refineries. Most Russian refineries produce the kerosine type jet fuels for use in aviation turbine engines but only a handful of locations have the complex infrastructure required to create the more specialized grades of aviation gas Aviation turbine fuels are used for powering jet and turbo-prop engined aircraft and are not to be confused with Avgas.

Russian Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance. Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. The range of their sizes (molecular weights or carbon numbers) is restricted by the requirements for the product, for example, the freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet fuel A and Jet A-1) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 (carbon atoms per molecule); wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15. Both Jet fuel A and Jet A-1 have a flash point higher than 38 °C (100 °F), with an autoignition temperature of 210 °C (410 °F).

Outside former communist areas, there are currently two main grades of turbine fuel in use in civil commercial aviation: Jet A-1 and Jet A, both are kerosine type fuels. There is another grade of jet fuel, Jet B which is a wide cut kerosine (a blend of gasoline and kerosine) but it is rarely used except in very cold climates.

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